He sends her to a manor somewhere on a steppe, while Makar alleviates his misery and pain with alcohol. The story focuses on poor people who struggle with their lack of self-esteem. Their misery leads to the loss of their inner freedom, to dependence on the social authorities, and to the extinction of their individuality. Dostoevsky shows how poverty and dependence are indissolubly aligned with deflection and deformation of self-esteem, combining inward and outerward suffering.
Notes from Underground is split into two stylistically different parts, the first essay-like, the second in narrative style.
The protagonist and first-person narrator is an unnamed year-old civil servant known as The Underground Man. The only known facts about his situation are that he has quit the service, lives in a basement flat on the outskirts of Saint Petersburg and finances his livelihood from a modest inheritance. The first part is a record of his thoughts about society and his character. He describes himself as vicious, squalid and ugly; the chief focuses of his polemic are the "modern human" and his vision of the world, which he attacks severely and cynically, and towards which he develops aggression and vengefulness.
He considers his own decline natural and necessary. Although he emphasises that he does not intend to publish his notes for the public, the narrator appeals repeatedly to an ill-described audience, whose questions he tries to address. In the second part he describes scenes from his life that are responsible for his failure in personal and professional life and in his love life.
He tells of meeting old school friends, who are in secure positions and treat him with condescension. His aggression turns inward on to himself and he tries to humiliate himself further. He presents himself as a possible saviour to the poor prostitute Lisa, advising her to reject self-reproach when she looks to him for hope. Dostoevsky added a short commentary saying that although the storyline and characters are fictional, such things were inevitable in contemporary society.
The Underground Man was very influential on philosophers. His alienated existence from the mainstream influenced modernist literature. Crime and Punishment describes Rodion Raskolnikov 's life, from the murder of a pawnbroker and her sister, through spiritual regeneration with the help of Sonya a " hooker with a heart of gold " , to his sentence in Siberia. Strakhov liked the novel, remarking that "Only Crime and Punishment was read in " and that Dostoevsky had managed to portray a Russian person aptly and realistically. Grigory Eliseev of the radical magazine The Contemporary called the novel a "fantasy according to which the entire student body is accused without exception of attempting murder and robbery".
The novel's protagonist, the year-old Prince Myshkin , returns to Russia after several years at a Swiss sanatorium. Scorned by Saint Petersburg society for his trusting nature and naivety, he finds himself at the center of a struggle between a beautiful kept woman, Nastasya, and a jealous but pretty young girl, Aglaya, both of whom win his affection. Unfortunately, Myshkin's goodness precipitates disaster, leaving the impression that, in a world obsessed with money, power and sexual conquest, a sanatorium may be the only place for a saint.
Myshkin is the personification of a "relatively beautiful man", namely Christ. Coming "from above" the Swiss mountains , he physically resembles common depictions of Jesus Christ : slightly larger than average, with thick, blond hair, sunken cheeks and a thin, almost entirely white goatee. Like Christ, Myshkin is a teacher, confessor and mysterious outsider. Passions such as greed and jealousy are alien to him. In contrast to those around him, he puts no value on money and power. He feels compassion and love, sincerely, without judgment. His relationship with the immoral Nastasya is obviously inspired by Christ's relationship with Mary Magdalene.
He is called "Idiot" because of such differences. It was influenced by the Book of Revelation. Stepan's son Pyotr is an aspiring revolutionary conspirator who attempts to organise revolutionaries in the area. He considers Varvara's son Nikolai central to his plot, because he thinks that Nikolai lacks sympathy for mankind. Pyotr gathers conspirators such as the philosophising Shigalyov, the suicidal Kirillov and the former military man Virginsky.
He schemes to consolidate their loyalty to him and each other by murdering Ivan Shatov, a fellow conspirator. Pyotr plans to have Kirillov, who is committed to killing himself, take credit for the murder in his suicide note. Kirillov complies and Pyotr murders Shatov, but his scheme goes awry. Pyotr escapes, but the remainder of his aspiring revolutionary crew is arrested.etihobexuk.tk
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In the denouement, Nikolai kills himself, tortured by his own misdeeds. At nearly pages, The Brothers Karamazov is Dostoevsky's largest work. It received both critical and popular acclaim and is often cited as his magnum opus. The first books introduce the Karamazovs. The main plot is the death of their father Fyodor, while other parts are philosophical and religious arguments by Father Zosima to Alyosha.
Instead of answering him, Christ gives him a kiss, and the Inquisitor subsequently releases him, telling him not to return. The tale was misunderstood as a defence of the Inquisitor, but some, such as Romano Guardini , have argued that the Christ of the parable was Ivan's own interpretation of Christ, "the idealistic product of the unbelief".
Ivan, however, has stated that he is against Christ. Most contemporary critics and scholars agree that Dostoevsky is attacking Roman Catholicism and socialist atheism, both represented by the Inquisitor. He warns the readers against a terrible revelation in the future, referring to the Donation of Pepin around and the Spanish Inquisition in the 16th century, which in his view corrupted true Christianity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the surname, see Dostoevsky surname. Russian author. This name uses Eastern Slavic naming customs ; the patronymic is Mikhailovich and the family name is Dostoevsky.
Portrait by Vasili Perov , Military engineer novelist journalist. Maria Dmitriyevna Isaeva m.
Anna Grigoryevna Snitkina m. Sonya Lyubov — Fyodor — Alexey — Main article: Themes in Fyodor Dostoevsky's writings. Main article: Poor Folk. Main article: Notes from Underground. Main article: Crime and Punishment.
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Main article: The Idiot. Main article: Demons Dostoevsky novel. Main article: The Brothers Karamazov. Main article: Fyodor Dostoevsky bibliography. Vremya and its successor Epokha expressed the philosophy of the conservative and Slavophile movement Pochvennichestvo , supported by Dostoevsky during his term of imprisonment and in the following years. According to biographer Joseph Frank, Dostoevsky took that as a sign not to gamble any more.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Dostoevsky the Thinker: A Philosophical Study. Cornell University Press. Handbook of Russian Literature.
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Yale University Press. Dostoevsky's Democracy. Princeton University Press. Letter to Gogol. Retrieved on 27 December Anthem Press.
The Dostoyevsky Encyclopedia in Russian. Retrieved 5 November Dostoevsky Literary Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 25 March Dostoyevsky: A Human Portrait , Knopf, , p. Northwestern University Press. Retrieved 3 July Commentary Magazine. Selected Letters of Fyodor Dostoevsky. Cambridge Studies in Russian Literature. Cambridge University Press. Dostoyevsky and the Process of Literary Creation.
Edited and translated by Caryl Emerson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Einstein and Soviet Ideology. Physics Today. Stanford University Press. Bibcode : PhT Academic Foundation. Conversations with James Joyce. University of Toronto. Archived from the original on 12 September The Common Reader. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Kafka: Gothic and Fairytale. Written at the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures.
Dostoevsky Studies. Freud, the Mind of the Moralist 3rd ed. University of Chicago Press.